26 JANUARY 2006
Captain Peter Griffiths welcomed all the participants to the conference and congratulated everyone on the success of CRM since its inception.
Captain Robert Calvert introduced the CRMAP members and gave a brief overview of their experiences and the relevance to their role as the main players. He also reiterated the main objectives of the Conference as follows:
How to conduct CRMI Observation
How to brief CRMI candidate
Understanding the competency standards that a CRMI Ground is expected to demonstrate
How to debrief a CRMI after an observation
importance of the CRMI Ground Guide and the CRMI Assessment Form in assisting
the CRMIE (Ground) in their role of assessing the CRMI was stressed. It was pointed out that this will be documented
shortly and would also be available on the web.
CRMIE Sample Brief
Captain Paul Field
gave a sample presentation
briefing Captain Benison before an observation. The importance of the presentation was to
stress and demonstrate to participants the following skills – ·
· Role Modelling
Demo Presentations/ Group Work
were three sample presentations. Captain
Colin Budenberg gave the first presentation displaying good CRMI
Instruction skills. Captains Carey
Edwards and Roger Benison gave the other two presentations displaying inferior
instructional skills. Participants
discussed these presentations in groups.
The summary of the group work endorsed by CAA (Captain Peter Griffiths) were as follows –
To be able to impart knowledge
· Instructors needed
instructional skills and facilitation skills Examiners needed ; ,
· The need to probe for knowledge by asking questions if in doubt about the performance
· Poor packages and presentations are not acceptable. The Examiner should know his subject and poor performances should not be excused.
· Importance of interaction and feedback from the audience
· The need to have set objectives at the briefing session for what is to be achieved
· The need for audience participation
How should the CRMIE approach the debrief?
Two different sample debriefs with Captains Colin Budenberg and Carey Edwards was followed by group discussions. The following were the outcome of the discussions: -
· The CRMIE should always resolve ambiguity before delivering results especially when unsure of the candidate’s knowledge
· The debriefing session could be used to check for the candidate’s knowledge by asking questions as part of the observation
· The examiner should consider the result and have formed a clear opinion before deliveing the result.
· Consequences of the action/future plans should be stressed
· State at the briefing session that questions may be asked as part of the observation before debrief.
· CRMI should have clear training objectives and the Examiner should be able to role-model the skills during the debriefing session
Facilitate good points being demonstrated
Stress positive experience
· Debriefing should focus on the CRMI’s development and include an appropriate balance of positive and negative feedback.
· It is important for the CRMIE to adopt relaxed but professional tone for debriefing and deliver the result at the outset
CRMIE must never allow trainee to facilitate results it must always be the examiner’s judgement. Any facilitation must always be after the result has ben given.
Pete Griffiths asked if the objectives of the day had been met and whether there was a need for this to become an annual event. The conclusions were as follows. That -
· The Ground School Training Guide and CRMI Assessment Form contained good information and would prove useful.
· It was beneficial to be involved in group exercises and see another examiner’s point of view.
· The hands-on/practical exercises were valuable.
· The focus on evidence-based debriefing was useful especially when failing a candidate.
· The day was beneficial because it had also focussed on the ‘hard’ side of examining.
· The practical demonstrations had given ideas for a framework for briefing and debriefing.
· There was general agreement that this should be an annual event.
· It was felt that some of the video clips were too short and it was agreed that for the next event, it would be preferable to have just one or two demonstrations but complete those in full with a discussion session afterwards.
· It was suggested that the practical demonstration be one that is just on ‘the bar’. Examples of unacceptable examiner behaviour would be useful.
· It was noted that attendance was about 60% and that for the next event, it might be useful to commence the session with a brief refresher. Consideration was being given to making attendance compulsory.
It was also
suggested that questions be submitted before the next event to allow the
Authority to prepare an introduction and
refresher that would be appropriate. A
proactive input would be required.
· It was stated that approximately 90% of CRMIE failures were due to deficiencies in the debrief and because of that, consideration should be given to improving skills in this area.
· A large number of revalidations were due in the current year and an overarching review of those could be useful.
QUESTION AND ANSWER SESSION
Crm Course Content
A question was asked as to whether an examiner should also assess the standard and suitability of the course content.
· The examiner should assess the performance of the instructor on that day.
· The content of the course is the ultimate responsibility of the Accountable Manager within the organisation and has to be contained within the Operations Manual.
If the content of the course were in question, it
would be advisable to feedback that information to either the operator or the
· Whilst it would be acceptable to modify the content slightly depending on the level of knowledge of the audience, senior trainers should observe sample sessions to check standards as an audit function.
Questions were asked about
standards and whether the
Authority was concerned about a
It was felt that standards were generally very good and within a narrow band but there were a few either side.
It was stated
that whilst no one intentionally worked to a poor standard, it could have been
due to lack of knowledge or
underatanding. . However
the Guide now does set out the standard therefore ignorance should be no
Comment was made that today has opened the box and showed the toolkit but that full standardisation was not likely for at least 5 years.
Questions were raised regarding the content and structure of the briefing and whether parallels can be made between a CRMI briefing and that of a TRI.
· A formal structured brief is not mandatory however all topics must be covered during the briefing. The Short Guide gives guidance as to the content however individual style is not to be discouraged
Guidance regarding how to determine a pass or a fail when the candidate was marginal was asked for. It was also asked if all items on the CRMI Assessment form were equally weighted.
· It was also stated that if the candidate does not ‘role model best CRM practice, then it must be a fail. This would include items such as lack of respect, intolerance, not listening, close-mindedness and arrogance.
· Not all items are equally weighted but the examiner must exercise judgement.
The course should be
similar to that for a Flight Instructor, i.e. it should be
25 hours of instruction followed by practical exercises. These practical exercises should be
completed prior to the end of the course, they are not part of the ‘on the job’
· Comment was made that some people have completed a CRMI course but could not produce a lesson. Question was asked where output should also be looked at.
· It was considered that not all CRMIs may necessarily be adept at producing lessons but may be very good instructors and vice versa. In a larger company, this would not be a problem but could cause problems for a smaller company with only one CRMI.
A question was asked regarding performance standards and development of CRMIs within individual companies.
· One operator said that performance development was HR driven within their company and carried out on an annual basis.
· Other operators said that the only review of standards was the 3-year revalidation.
It was asked what procedures must be followed after a
The candidate could still continue to instruct CRM but only under the supervision of another CRMI.
If a candidate fails, does this invalidate the training?
This must be a decision for the operator and the Quality System.
It was questioned that if NOTECS were a behavioural marker system, why were they called a checklist.
It was agreed that they could be renamed.
Questions were raised regarding what documentation
should be given to the candidate both prior to and after the assessment.
The candidate should be given clear objectives and to achieve this, it was suggested that they be provided with copies of the Short Guide and the CRMI Assessment Form.
The candidate can be given copies of their assessment forms as these have been fully discussed and debriefed.
The Examiner should only keep copies of the TS10 to avoid difficulties with the Data Protection Act.
What documentation should be sent to the
Authority if a CRMAP
member is carrying out the Examiner revalidation?
The application form
should always be sent to the
Authority, regardless of who is carrying out the
Is it necessary for the I and the E to be revalidated
· Both are required to be revalidated but this could be achieved on the same day if the Examiner were to conduct an appropriate training session in addition to carrying out an examination. One charge would therefore apply.
· Flexibility is possible as the I can be revalidated within the previous year without losing the expiry date.
It is also acceptable
for an E within one company to revalidate an I with another company and have a reciprocal
arrangement. This can be carried out
with agreement from the